CHAPTER 212
COMPANIES ACT

[PRINCIPAL LEGISLATION]

ARRANGEMENT OF SECTIONS

   Section

Title

PART I
PRELIMINARY PROVISIONS

   1.   Short title.

   2.   Interpretation.

PART II
INCORPORATION OF COMPANIES AND MATTERS INCIDENTAL THERETO

Memorandum of Association

   3.   Mode of forming incorporated company.

   4.   Requirement with respect to memorandum.

   5.   Signature of memorandum.

   6.   Restriction on alteration of memorandum.

   7.   Cases and mode in which and extent to which objects of company may be altered.

Articles of Association

   8.   Articles prescribing regulations for companies.

   9.   Regulations required in case of unlimited company or company limited by guarantee.

   10.   Adoption and application of Table A.

   11.   Printing and signature of articles.

   12.   Alteration of articles by special resolution.

Form of Memorandum and Articles

   13.   Statutory forms of memorandum and articles.

Registration

   14.   Registration of memorandum and articles.

   14A.   Refusal to register memorandum and articles of association.

   15.   Effect of registration.

   16.   Conclusiveness of certificate of incorporation.

   17.   Registration of unlimited company as limited.

   18.   Prohibition of registration of companies by undesirable names.

   19.   Powers to dispense with "Limited" in name of charitable and other companies.

   20.   Change of name.

General Provisions with respect to Memorandum and Articles

   21.   Effect of memorandum and articles.

   22.   Provision as to memorandum and articles of companies limited by guarantee.

   23.   Alterations in memorandum or articles increasing liability to contribute to share capital not to bind existing members without consent.

   24.   Copies of memorandum and articles to be given to members.

   25.   Issued copies of memorandum to embody alteration.

Membership of Company

   26.   Membership of company.

   27.   Meaning of "private company".

   28.   Circumstances in which company ceases to be, or to enjoy privileges of a private company.

Reduction of Number of Members below Legal Minimum

   29.   Prohibition of carrying on business with fewer than seven or, in the case of a private company, two members.

Contracts, etc.

   30.   Form of contracts.

   31.   Bills of exchange and promissory notes.

   32.   Execution of deeds abroad.

   33.   Power for company to have official seal for use abroad.

Authentication of Documents

   34.   Authentication of documents.

PART III
SHARE CAPITAL AND DEBENTURES

Prospectus

   35.   Dating and registration of prospectus.

   35A.   Expert statements on a prospectus.

   35B.   Prospectus on approved stock exchange.

   36.   Specific requirements as to particulars in prospectus.

   37.   Restriction on alteration of terms mentioned in prospectus or statement in lieu of prospectus.

   38.   Liability for statement in prospectus.

   39.   Document containing offer of shares or debentures for sale to be deemed prospectus.

Allotment

   40.   Prohibition of allotment unless minimum subscription received.

   41.   Prohibition of allotment in certain cases unless statement in lieu of prospectus delivered to Registrar.

   42.   Effect of irregular allotment.

   43.   Return as to allotment.

Commissions and Discounts

   44.   Power to pay certain commissions, and prohibition of payment of all other commissions, discounts, etc.

   45.   Statement in balance sheet as to commissions and discounts.

   46.   Prohibition of provision of financial assistance by company for purchase of its own shares.

Issue of Redeemable Preference Shares and Shares at Discount

   47.   Power to issue redeemable preference shares.

   48.   Power to issue shares at a discount.

Miscellaneous Provisions as to Share Capital

   49.   Power of company to arrange for different amounts being paid on shares.

   50.   Reserve liability of limited company.

   51.   Power of company limited by shares to alter share capital.

   52.   Notice to Registrar of consolidation of share capital, conversion of shares into stock, etc.

   53.   Notice of increase of share capital.

   54.   Power of unlimited company to provide for reserve share capital on re-registration.

   55.   Power of company to pay interest out of capital in certain cases.

Reduction of Share Capital

   56.   Special resolution for reduction of share capital.

   57.   Application to court for confirming order, objections by creditors, and settlement of list of objecting creditors.

   58.   Order confirming reduction and powers of court on making such order.

   59.   Registration of order and minute of reduction.

   60.   Liability of members in respect of reduced shares.

   61.   Penalty on concealment of name of creditor.

Variation of Shareholders' Rights

   62.   Rights of holders of special classes of shares.

Transfer of Shares and Debentures, Evidence of Title, etc.

   63.   Nature of shares.

   63A.   Establishment by stock exchange of depository or issued securities.

   64.   Transfer not to be registered except on production of instrument of transfer.

   65.   Transfer by personal representative.

   66.   Registration of transfer at request of transferor.

   67.   Notice of refusal to register transfer.

   68.   Duties of company with respect to issue of certificate.

   69.   Certificate to be evidence of title.

   70.   Evidence of grant of probate.

   71.   Issue and effect of share warrants to bearer.

   72.   Penalty for personation of shareholders.

   73.   Offences in connection with share warrants.

Special Provisions as to Debentures

   74.   Right of debenture holders and shareholders to inspect register of debenture holders and to have copies of trust deed.

   75.   Perpetual debentures.

   76.   Power to re-issue redeemed debentures in certain cases.

   77.   Specific performance of contracts to subscribe for debentures.

   78.   Payment of certain debts out of assets subject to floating charge in priority to claims under the charge.

PART IV
REGISTRATION OF CHARGES

Registration of Charges with Registrar

   79.   Registration of charges.

   80.   Duty of company to register charges created by company.

   81.   Duty of company to register charges existing on property acquired.

   82.   Register of charges to be kept by Registrar.

   83.   Endorsement of certificate of registration of debentures.

   84.   Entry of satisfaction.

   85.   Rectification of register of charges.

   86.   Registration of enforcement of security.

Provisions as to Company's Register of Charges and as to Copies of Instruments Creating Charges

   87.   Copies of instruments creating charges to be kept by company.

   88.   Company's register of charges.

   89.   Right to inspect copies of instruments creating mortgages and charges and company's register of charges.

Application of Part IV to Companies Incorporated outside Tanzania

   90.   Application of Part IV to charges created, and property subject to charge acquired by company incorporated outside Tanzania.

   91.   Provisions as to charges created, and charges on property acquired, by company before commencement of Act.

PART V
MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION

Registered Office and Name

   92.   Registered office of company.

   93.   Publication of name by company.

Statement of Amount of Paid-up Capital

   94.   Statement of amount of capital subscribed and amount paid up.

Restrictions on Commencement of Business

   95.   Restrictions on commencement of business.

   96.   Register of members.

   97.   Index of members of company.

   98.   Provisions as to entries in register in relation to share warrants.

   99.   Inspection of register of members.

   100.   Power to close register.

   101.   Power of court to rectify register.

   102.   Trusts not to be entered on register.

   103.   Register to be evidence.

   104.   Power for company to keep branch register.

   105.   Regulations as to branch register.

   106.   Stamp duties in case of shares registered in branch registers.

   107.   Provisions as to branch registers kept outside Tanzania.

Annual Returns

   108.   Annual return to be made by company having a share capital.

   109.   Annual return to be made by company not having share capital.

   110.   General provisions as to annual returns.

   111.   Certificates to be sent by private company with annual return.

Meetings and Proceedings

   112.   Annual general meeting.

   113.   Statutory meeting and statutory report.

   114.   Convening of extraordinary general meeting on requisition.

   115.   Provisions as to meetings and votes.

   116.   Representation of companies at meeting of other companies and of creditors.

   117.   Provisions as to extraordinary and special resolutions.

   118.   Registration and copies of certain resolutions and agreements.

   119.   Resolutions passed at adjourned meetings.

   120.   Minutes of proceedings, of meetings, of company and of directors.

   121.   Inspection of minute books.

Accounts and Audit

   122.   Keeping of books of account.

   123.   Profit and loss account and balance sheet.

   124.   Contents of balance sheet.

   125.   Assets consisting of shares in subsidiary companies to be set out separately in balance sheet.

   126.   Balance sheet to include particulars as to subsidiary companies.

   127.   Meaning of subsidiary company.

   128.   Accounts to contain particulars as to loans to, and remuneration of, directors, etc.

   129.   Signing of balance sheet.

   130.   Right to receive copies of balance sheet and auditor's report.

   131.   Banking and certain other companies to publish periodical statements.

   132.   Appointment and remuneration of auditors.

   133.   Disqualification for appointment as auditor.

   134.   Auditors' report and auditor's right of access to books and right to attend general meetings.

   134A.   Accounts and audit of parastatal organisations.

   134B.   Laying of accounts before the National Assembly.

   134C.   Minister may give directions to Board.

Investigation by the Registrar

   135.   Investigation by Registrar.

Inspection

   136.   Investigation of affairs of company by inspectors.

   137.   Proceedings on report by inspectors.

   138.   Power of company to appoint inspectors.

   139.   Report of inspectors to be evidence.

Directors and Managers

   140.   Number of directors.

   141.   Restrictions on appointment or advertisement of director.

   142.   Qualification of director or manager.

   143.   Provisions as to undischarged bankrupts acting as directors.

   144.   Validity of acts of directors.

   145.   Register of directors.

   146.   Particulars with respect to directors in trade catalogues, circulars, etc.

   147.   Limited company may have directors with unlimited liability.

   148.   Special limited company making resolution of liability of directors unlimited.

   149.   Statements as to remuneration of directors to be furnished to shareholders.

   150.   Disclosure by directors of interest in contracts.

   151.   Provision as to payments received by directors for loss of office or on retirement.

   152.   Provisions as to assignment of office by directors.

Avoidance of Provisions in Articles or Contract Relieving Officers from Liability

   153.   Provisions as to liability of officers and auditors.

Arrangements and Reconstructions

   154.   Power to compromise with creditors and members.

   155.   Provisions for facilitating reconstruction of companies.

   156.   Power to acquire shares of shareholders dissenting from scheme or contract approved by majority.

PART VI
WINDING UP

(i) PRELIMINARY PROVISIONS

Modes of Winding up

   157.   Modes of winding up.

Contributories

   158.   Liability as to contributories of present and past member.

   159.   Definition of contributory.

   160.   Nature of liability of contributory.

   161.   Contributories in case of death of members.

   162.   Contributories in case of bankruptcy.

(ii) WINDING UP BY THE COURT

Jurisdiction

   163.   Jurisdiction to wind up companies registered in Tanzania.

   164.   Transfer of proceedings from High Court to district court.

   165.   Transfer of proceedings from one district court to another.

   166.   Statement of case for opinion of High Court.

Cases in which a Company may be Wound up by Court

   167.   Circumstances in which company may be wound up by court.

   168.   Definition of inability to pay debts.

Petition for Winding Up and Effects thereof

   169.   Provisions as to applications for winding up.

   170.   Power of court on hearing petition.

   171.   Power to stay or restrain proceedings against company.

   172.   Avoidance of dispositions of property, etc., after commencement of winding up.

   173.   Avoidance of attachment, etc.

Commencement of Winding Up

   174.   Commencement of winding up by the court.

Consequences of Winding-Up Order

   175.   Copy of order to be forwarded to Registrar.

   176.   Actions stayed on winding up order.

   177.   Effect of winding-up order.

Official Receiver in Winding Up

   178.   Official receiver in bankruptcy to be official receiver for winding up purposes.

   179.   Appointment of official receiver by court in certain cases.

   180.   Statement of company's affairs to be submitted to official receiver.

   181.   Report by official receiver.

Liquidators

   182.   Power of court to appoint liquidators.

   183.   Appointment and power of provisional liquidator.

   184.   Appointment, style, etc., of liquidators.

   185.   Provisions where person other than official receiver is appointed liquidator.

   186.   Provisions as to liquidator on an order for winding up by court after order for winding up, subject to supervision.

   187.   General provisions as to liquidators.

   188.   Custody of company's property.

   189.   Vesting of property of company in liquidator.

   190.   Powers of liquidator.

   191.   Exercise and control of liquidator's powers.

   192.   Books to be kept by liquidator.

   193.   Audit of liquidator's accounts.

   194.   Control over liquidators.

   195.   Release of liquidators.

Committees of Inspection

   196.   Meetings of creditors and contributories to determine whether committee of inspection shall be appointed.

   197.   Constitution and proceedings of committee of inspection.

General Powers of Court in Case of Winding Up by Court

   198.   Power to stay winding up.

   199.   Settlement of list of contributories and application of assets.

   200.   Delivery of property to liquidator.

   201.   Payment of debts due by contributory to company and extent to which set off allowed.

   202.   Power of court to make calls.

   203.   Payment into bank of moneys due to company.

   204.   Order on a contributory conclusive evidence.

   205.   Appointment of special manager.

   206.   Power to exclude creditors not proving in time.

   207.   Adjustment of rights of contributories.

   208.   Inspection of books by creditors and contributories.

   209.   Power to order costs of winding up to be paid out of assets.

   210.   Power to summon persons suspected of having property of company.

   211.   Attendance of director of company at meetings of creditors, etc.

   212.   Power to order public examination of promoters, directors, etc.

   213.   Power to restrain fraudulent persons from managing companies.

   214.   Power to arrest absconding contributory.

   215.   Powers of court cumulative.

   216.   Dissolution of company.

Enforcement of and Appeal from Orders

   217.   Manner of enforcing orders of court.

   218.   Where order of court may be enforced.

   219.   Enforcement of order in another court.

   220.   Appeals from orders.

(iii) VOLUNTARY WINDING UP

Resolution for, and Commencement of, Voluntary Winding Up

   221.   Circumstances in which company may be wound up voluntarily.

   222.   Notice of resolution to wind up voluntarily.

   223.   Commencement of voluntary winding up.

Consequence of Voluntary Winding Up

   224.   Effect of voluntarily winding up on business and status of company.

   225.   Avoidance of transfers, etc., after commencement of voluntary winding up.

Declaration of Solvency

   226.   Statutory declaration of solvency in case of proposal to wind up voluntarily.

Provisions Applicable to a Member's Voluntary Winding Up

   227.   Provisions applicable to a member's winding up.

   228.   Power of company to appoint and fix remuneration of liquidator.

   229.   Power to fill vacancy in office of liquidator.

   230.   Power of liquidator to accept shares, etc., as consideration for sale of property of company.

   231.   Duty of liquidator to call general meeting at end of each year.

   232.   Final meeting and dissolution.

Provisions Applicable to a Creditor's Voluntary Winding Up

   233.   Provisions applicable to a creditor's winding up.

   234.   Meeting of creditors.

   235.   Appointment of liquidator.

   236.   Appointment of committee of inspection.

   237.   Fixing of liquidators' remuneration and cesser of directors' powers.

   238.   Power to fill vacancy in office of liquidator.

   239.   Application of section 230 to a creditor's voluntary winding up.

   240.   Duty of liquidator to call meetings of company and of creditors at end of each year.

   241.   Final meeting and distribution.

Provisions Applicable to Every Voluntary Winding Up

   242.   Provisions applicable to every voluntary winding up.

   243.   Distribution of assets of company.

   244.   Powers and duties of liquidator in voluntary winding up.

   245.   Power of court to appoint and remove liquidator in voluntary winding up.

   246.   Notice by liquidator of his appointment.

   247.   Arrangement when binding on creditors.

   248.   Power to apply to court to have questions determined or powers exercised.

   249.   Power of court to stay proceedings against company.

   250.   Cost of voluntary winding up.

   251.   Saving of rights of creditors and contributories.

(iv) WINDING UP SUBJECT TO SUPERVISION OF COURT

   252.   Power to order winding up subject to supervision.

   253.   Effect of petition for winding up subject to supervision.

   254.   Application of sections 172 and 173 to winding up subject to supervision.

   255.   Power of court to appoint or remove liquidators.

   256.   Effect of supervision order.

(v) PROVISIONS APPLICABLE TO EVERY MODE OF WINDING UP

Proof and Ranking of Claims

   257.   Debts of all descriptions to be proved.

   258.   Application of bankruptcy rules in winding up of insolvent company.

   259.   Preferential payments.

Effect of Winding Up on Antecedent and Other Transactions

   260.   Fraudulent preferences.

   261.   Effect of floating charge.

   262.   Disclaimer of onerous property.

   263.   Restriction of rights of creditor as to execution or attachment in case of company being wound up.

   264.   Duties of court as to goods taken in execution.

Offences Antecedent to or in Course of Winding Up

   265.   Offences by officers of companies in liquidation.

   266.   Penalty for falsification of books.

   267.   Fraud by officers of companies which have gone into liquidation.

   268.   Liability where proper accounts not kept.

   269.   Responsibility of directors for fraudulent trading.

   270.   Powers of court to assess damages against delinquent directors, etc.

   271.   Prosecution of delinquent officers and members of company.

Supplementary Provisions as to Winding Up

   272.   Disqualification for appointment as liquidator.

   273.   Enforcement of duty of liquidator to make returns, etc.

   274.   Notification that a company is in liquidation.

   275.   Exemption of certain documents from stamp duty on winding up of companies.

   276.   Books of company to be evidence.

   277.   Disposal of books and papers of company.

   278.   Information as to pending liquidations.

   279.   Resolutions passed at adjourned meetings of creditors and contributories.

Supplementary Powers of Court

   280.   Meetings to ascertain wishes of creditors or contributories.

   281.   Affidavits, etc., in Tanzania.

Provisions as to Dissolution

   282.   Power of court to declare dissolution of company void.

   283.   Registrar may strike defunct company off register.

   284.   Property of dissolved company to be bona vacantia.

Rules and Fees

   285.   General rules for winding up.

PART VII
DISSOLUTION OF SCHEDULED COMPANIES

   285A.-285C.   [Omitted.]

PART VIII
RECEIVERS AND MANAGERS

   286.   Disqualification for appointment as receiver.

   287.   Power to appoint official receiver as receiver for debenture holders or creditors.

   288.   Notification that receiver or manager appointed.

   289.   Power of court to fix remuneration on application of liquidator.

   290.   Delivery to Registrar of accounts of receiver or manager.

   291.   Enforcement of duty of receiver to make returns, etc.

PART IX
GENERAL PROVISIONS AS TO REGISTRATION

   292.   Registration offices.

   293.   Fees.

   294.   Inspection, production and evidence of documents kept by Registrar.

   295.   Enforcement of duty of company to make returns to Registrar.

PART X
APPLICATION OF ACT TO COMPANIES FORMED OR REGISTERED UNDER THE REPEALED INDIAN COMPANIES ACT

   296.   Application of Act to companies formed under the Indian Companies Act.

   297.   Application of Act to companies registered under the repealed Indian Companies Act.

PART XI
COMPANIES NOT FORMED UNDER THIS ACT AUTHORISED TO REGISTER UNDER THIS ACT

   298.   Companies capable of being registered.

   299.   Definition of joint stock company.

   300.   Requirements for registration of joint stock companies.

   301.   Requirements for registration by other than joint stock companies.

   302.   Authentication of statements of existing companies.

   303.   Registrar may require evidence as to nature of company.

   304.   Exemption of certain companies from payment of fees.

   305.   Addition of "limited" to name.

   306.   Certificate of registration of existing companies.

   307.   Vesting of property on registration.

   308.   Saving of existing liabilities.

   309.   Continuation of existing actions.

   310.   Effect of registration under Part XI of this Act.

   311.   Power to substitute memorandum and articles for deed of settlement.

   312.   Power of court to stay or restrain proceedings.

   313.   Actions stayed on winding up order.

PART XII
WINDING UP OF UNREGISTERED COMPANIES

   314.   Meaning of unregistered company.

   315.   Winding up of unregistered company.

   316.   Contributories in winding up of unregistered company.

   317.   Power of court to stay or restrain proceedings.

   318.   Actions stayed on winding-up order.

   319.   Provisions of Part XII cumulative.

PART XIII
COMPANIES INCORPORATED OUTSIDE TANZANIA CARRYING ON BUSINESS WITHIN TANZANIA

   320.   Companies to which Part XIII applies.

   320A.   Companies incorporated outside Tanzania to establish place of business within Tanzania with the approval only of the Registrar.

   321.   Documents, etc., to be delivered to Registrar by companies carrying on business in Tanzania.

   322.   Power of companies incorporated outside Tanzania to hold lands.

   323.   Balance sheet of company business in Tanzania.

   324.   Obligation to state name of company, whether limited, and country where incorporated.

   325.   Service on company to which Part XII applies.

   326.   Where company ceases to have place of business.

   327.   Penalties.

   328.   Interpretation of Part XIII.

PART XIV
RESTRICTIONS ON SALE OF SHARES AND OFFERS OF SHARES FOR SALE

   329.   Provisions with respect to prospectuses of foreign companies inviting subscriptions for shares or offering shares for sale.

   330.   Requirements as to prospectus.

   331.   Restriction on offering of shares for subscription or sale.

Special Provisions relating to Statutory Corporations

   331A.   Interpretation of "subsidiary company".

   331B.   Special provisions relating to statutory corporations and their subsidiaries.

   331C.   Dissolution of subsidiary companies.

Powers of the President

   331D.   Power of the President to require company to be wound up.

   331E.   President may order foreign company to cease to carry on business.

PART XV
MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

Prohibition of Partnerships with More than Twenty Members

   332.   Prohibition of partnerships with more than twenty members.

Provisions relating to Banks

   333.-334.   [Repealed.]

Miscellaneous Offences

   335.   Penalty for false statement.

   336.   Penalty for perjury.

   337.   Penalty for improper use of word "Limited".

General Provisions as to Offences

   338.   Cognisance of offences.

   339.   Provision with respect to default fines and meaning of "officer" in default.

   340.   Application of fines.

   341.   Saving as to private prosecutors.

   342.   Saving for privileged communications.

Service of Documents and Legal Proceedings

   343.   Service of documents.

   344.   Costs in actions by certain limited companies.

   345.   Power of court to grant relief in certain cases.

   346.   Power to enforce orders.

   347.   Power to alter tables and forms.

   347A.   Minister to make variations.

Companies (Winding Up) Rules, 1929 (Imperial), Applied to Tanzania

   348.   Companies (Winding Up) Rules applied to Tanzania.

Repeal and Savings

   349.   [Repeal.]

   350.   [Omitted.]

PART XVI
COMPANIES (TAX ON NOMINAL CAPITAL)

   351.   Levy of tax on nominal capital of companies incorporated in Tanzania.

   352.   Tax, when payable.

   353.   Power of Registrar of Companies to refuse registration unless tax is paid.

   354.   Remission in case of certain companies.

   355.   General power to remit by Minister.

SCHEDULES

CHAPTER 212
THE COMPANIES ACT

An Act to regulate trading companies and other associations, to impose tax on nominal capital, to regulate dividends and surpluses, and to provide for related matters.

[1st October, 1932 1]
[15th June, 1972]

Ords. Nos.
46 of 1931
[R.L. Cap. 212]
3 of 1933
42 of 1947
38 of 1952
10 of 1955
31 of 1960
Acts Nos.
33 of 1964
41 of 1966
41 of 1969
2 of 1970
11 of 1971
10 of 1973
8 of 1974
16 of 1974
22 of 1981
17 of 1990
13 of 1991
14 of 1992
6 of 1994
13 of 1996
[R.L. Cap. 188]
4 of 1997
25 of 1997
2 of 1998
12 of 1998

PART I
PRELIMINARY PROVISIONS (ss 1-2)

1.   Short title

   This Act may be cited as the Companies Act.

2.   Interpretation Acts Nos. 22 of 1981; 6 of 1994 Sch.; 4 of 1997 s. 21">

   (1) In Parts I to XIII of this Act, unless the context requires otherwise–

   "annual return" means the return required to be made, in the case of a company having a share capital, under section 108 and, in the case of a company not having a share capital, under section 109 of this Act;

   "Approved Stock Exchange" means a stock exchange approved under section 25 of the Capital Markets and Securities Act *, and includes an interim stock trading facility approved under section 114 of that Act;

   "articles" means the articles of association of a company, as originally framed or as altered by special resolution, including, so far as they apply to the company, as the regulations contained in Table A in the First Schedule annexed to the Indian Companies Act, 1913, as applied to Tanzania or in Table A in the First Schedule to this Act;

   "book and paper" and "book or paper" include accounts, deeds, writings and documents;

   "Capital Markets and Securities Authority" means the Authority established by section 6 of the Capital Markets and Securities Act *;

   "company" means a company formed and registered under this Act or an existing company;

   "court" used in relation to a company, a parastatal organisation or a statutory corporation, means the High Court;

   "existing company" means a company formed and registered under the Indian Companies Act, 1913, as applied to Tanzania;

   "debenture" includes debenture stocks, bonds and any other securities of a company whether constituting a charge on the assets of the company or not;

   "default fine" means a fine as defined in section 339;

   "director" includes any person occupying the position of director by whatever name called;

   "document" includes summons, notice, order and other legal process, and registers;

   "insurance company" means a company which carries on the business of insurance either solely or in common with any other business or businesses;

   "manager" includes any person occupying the position of a manager by whatever name called and whether under a contract of service or not;

   "memorandum" means the memorandum of association of a company, as originally framed or as altered in pursuance of any enactment;

   "Minister" means the Minister for the time being, responsible for companies' incorporation;

   "Minister responsible for the parent Ministry" in relation to a parastatal organisation, means the Minister for the time being responsible under the direction of the President for the principal business in which the parastatal organisation in question is engaged or, if the President has not for the time being assigned responsibility for the business in question to any Minister, the President;

   "officer" used in relation to a company, a parastatal organisation or a statutory corporation, includes any director, director-general, managing director, general manager, manager or other person, by whatever designation described, who is concerned, as the chief executive, with the management of the business and affairs of the company, organisation or corporation, as the case may be, but, save in sections 265, 270 and 271, does not include an auditor;

   "open-ending investment company" means a body corporate–

   (a)   which has as its purpose the investment of its funds with the aim of spreading investment risk and giving its members the benefit of the results of the management of those funds by or, on behalf of that body; and

   (b)   the members in which have rights represented by shares of securities of that body which–

      (i)   those members are entitled to have redeemed or purchase from them by, or out of funds provided by that body; or

      (ii)   the body ensures can be sold by the members on an investment exchange at a price related to the value of the property to which they relate;

   "parastatal organisation" means any company established under this Act fifty or more per centum of whose share capital is owned or otherwise contributed by the Government, a statutory corporation or whose management the Government, a statutory corporation or another parastatal organisation participates;

   "Parastatal Organisations Committee" means the Committee of the National Assembly which deals with matters relating to parastatal organisations;

   "prescribed" means, as respects the provisions of this Act relating to the winding up of companies, prescribed by rules made by the High Court and, as respects the other provisions of this Act, prescribed by the President;

   "prospectus" means any prospectus, notice, circular, advertisement or other invitation, offering to the public for subscription or purchase any shares or debentures of a company;

   "Registrar" means the Registrar of Companies or any Assistant Registrar performing under this Act the duty of registration of companies;

   "rules" means rules made under section 285 of this Act, and includes forms;

   "share" means share in the share capital of a company, and includes stock except where a distinction between stock and shares is expressed or implied;

   "statutory corporation" means any body corporate established by or under any written law, other than a company;

   "Table A" means Table A in the First Schedule to this Act.

   (2) A person shall not be deemed to be within the meaning of any provision in this Act a person in accordance with whose directions or instructions the directors of a company are accustomed to act, by reason only that the directors of the company act on advice given by him in a professional capacity.

PART II
INCORPORATION OF COMPANIES AND MATTERS INCIDENTAL THERETO (ss 3-44)

Memorandum of Association (ss 3-7)

3.   Mode of forming incorporated company

   (1) Any seven or more persons, or, where the company to be formed will be a private company, any two or more persons associated for any lawful purpose may, by subscribing their names to a memorandum of association and otherwise complying with the requirements of this Act in respect of registration, form an incorporated company, with or without limited liability.

   (2) Such a company may be either–

   (a)   a company having the liability of its members limited by the memorandum to the amount, if any, unpaid on the shares respectively held by them (in this Act termed "a company limited by shares"); or

   (b)   a company having the liability of its members limited by the memorandum to such amount as the members may respectively thereby undertake to contribute to the assets of the event of its being wound up (in this Act termed "a company limited by guarantee"); or

   (c)   a company not having any limit on the liability of its members (in this Act termed "an unlimited company").

4.   Requirement with respect to memorandum Ord. No. 10 of 1955 s. 2">

   (1) The memorandum of every company must state–

   (a)   the name of the company, with "Limited" as the last word of the name in the case of a company limited by shares or by guarantee; and

   (b)   the objects of the company.

   (2) The memorandum of a company limited by shares or by guarantee must also state that the liability of its members is limited.

   (3) The memorandum of a company limited by guarantee must also state that each member undertakes to contribute to the assets of the company in the event of its being wound up while he is a member, or within one year after he ceases to be a member, for payment of the debts and liabilities of the company contracted before he ceases to be a member, and of the costs, charges, and expenses of winding up, and for adjustment of the rights of the contributories among themselves, such amount as may be required, not exceeding a specified amount.

   (4) In the case of a company having a share capital–

   (a)   the memorandum must also, unless the company is an unlimited company, state the amount of share capital with which the company proposes to be registered and the division thereof into shares of a fixed amount;

   (b)   no subscriber of the memorandum may take less than one share;

   (c)   each subscriber must write opposite to his name the number of shares he takes.

5.   Signature of memorandum

   The memorandum must be signed by each subscriber in the presence of at least one witness who must attest the signature.

6.   Restriction on alteration of memorandum

   A company may not alter the conditions contained in its memorandum except in the cases, in the mode and to the extent for which express provision is made in this Act.

7.   Cases and mode in which and extent to which objects of company may be altered Ord. No. 10 of 1955 s. 3; Act No. 13 of 1991 Sch.">

   (1) Subject to the provisions of this section, a company may, by special resolution, alter the provisions of its memorandum with respect to the objects of the company, so far as may be required to enable to–

   (a)   to carry on its business more economically or more efficiently; or

   (b)   to attain its main purpose by new or improved means; or

   (c)   to enlarge or change the local area of its operations; or

   (d)   to carry on some business which under existing circumstances, may conveniently or advantageously be combined with the business of the company; or

   (e)   to restrict or abandon any of the objects specified in the memorandum; or

   (f)   to sell or dispose of the whole or any part of the undertaking of the company; or

   (g)   to amalgamate with any other company or body of persons.

   (2) The alteration shall not take effect until, and except in so far as, it is confirmed on petition by the court.

   (3) Before confirming the alteration the court must be satisfied–

   (a)   that sufficient notice has been given to every holder of debentures of the company, and to any persons or class of persons whose interests will, in the opinion of the court, be effected by the alteration; and

   (b)   that, with respect to every creditor who in the opinion of the court is entitled to object and who signifies his objection in manner directed by the court, either his consent to the alteration has been obtained or his debt or claim has been discharged or has determined, or has been secured to the satisfaction of court:

   Provided that the court may, in the case of any person or class, for special reasons, dispense with the notice required by this section.

   (4) The court may make an order confirming the alteration either wholly or in part, and on such terms and conditions as it thinks fit.

   (5) The court shall, in exercising its discretion under this section, have regard to the rights and interests of the members of the company or of any class of them, as well as to the rights and interests of the creditors, and may, if it thinks fit, adjourn the proceedings in order that an arrangement may be made to the satisfaction of the court for the purchase of the interests of dissentient members, and may give such directions and make such orders as it may think expedient for facilitating or carrying into effect any such arrangement:

   Provided that no part of the capital of the company shall be expended in any such purchase.

   (6) A certified copy of the order confirming the alteration, together with a printed copy of the memorandum as altered, shall, within fifteen days from the date of the order, be delivered by the company to the Registrar, and he shall register the copy so delivered and shall certify the registration under his hand, and the certificate shall be conclusive evidence that all the requirements of this Act with respect to the alteration and the confirmation thereof have been complied with, and thenceforth the memorandum as so altered shall be the memorandum of the company.

   The court may by order at any time extend the time for the delivery of documents to the Registrar under this section for such period as the court may think proper.

   (7) If a company makes a default in delivering to the Registrar any document required by this section to be delivered to him, the company shall be liable to a fine not exceeding one thousand shillings for every day during which the default continues.

   (8) Notwithstanding anything contained in this section, a company registered on or before the 18th February, 1955, may at any time by special resolution alter or delete any provision in its memorandum relating to the place in which its registered office is to be situate.

Articles of Association (ss 8-12)

8.   Articles prescribing regulations for companies

   There may in the case of a company limited by shares, and there shall in the case of a company limited by guarantee or unlimited, be registered with the memorandum articles of association signed by the subscribers to the memorandum and prescribing regulations for the company.

9.   Regulations required in case of unlimited company or company limited by guarantee

   (1) In the case of an unlimited company the articles, if the company has a share capital, must state the amount of share capital with which the company proposes to be registered.

   (2) In the case of an unlimited company or a company limited by guarantee, the articles must state the number of members with which the company proposes to be registered.

   (3) Where a company not having a share capital has increased the number of its members beyond the registered number, it shall, within fifteen days after the increase was resolved on or took place, give to the Registrar notice of the increase, and the Registrar shall record the increase.

   If default is made in complying with this subsection, the company and every officer of the company who is in default shall be liable to a default fine.

10.   Adoption and application of Table A

   (1) Articles of association may adopt all or any of the regulations contained in Table A.

   (2) In the case of a company limited by shares and registered after the commencement of this Act, if articles are not registered, or if articles are registered, in so far as the articles do not exclude or modify the regulations contained in Table A, those regulations shall so far as applicable, be the regulations of the company in the same manner and to the same extent as if they were contained in duly registered articles.

11.   Printing and signature of articles

   Articles must–

   (a)   be printed;

   (b)   be divided into paragraphs numbered consecutively; and

   (c)   be signed by each subscriber to the memorandum of association in the presence of at least one witness who must attest the signature and add his occupation and address.

12.   Alteration of articles by special resolution

   (1) Subject to the provisions of this Act and to the conditions contained in its memorandum a company may by special resolution alter or add to its articles.

   (2) Any alteration or addition so made to the articles shall, subject to the provisions of this Act, be as valid as if originally contained therein, and be subject in like manner to alteration by special resolution.

Form of Memorandum and Articles (s 13)

13.   Statutory forms of memorandum and articles Act No. 11 of 1971 Sch.">

   (1) The form of–

   (a)   the memorandum of association of a company limited by shares;

   (b)   the memorandum and articles of association of a company limited by guarantee and not having a share capital;

   (c)   the memorandum and articles of association of a company limited by guarantee and having a share capital; and

   (d)   the memorandum and articles of association of an unlimited company having a share capital,

shall be respectively in accordance with the forms set out in Tables B, C, D and E in the First Schedule to this Act, or as near thereto as circumstances admit.

   (2) The Minister may by regulations amend the First Schedule so as to prescribe forms of the memorandum of association and the articles of association of a company which is a subsidiary of a statutory corporation.

   (3) A company shall for the purposes of subsection (2) be deemed to be a subsidiary of a statutory corporation if it is a subsidiary within the meaning assigned to that term by section 331A.

Registration (ss 14-20)

14.   Registration of memorandum and articles

   The memorandum and the articles, if any, shall be delivered to the Registrar and he shall retain and register them.

14A.   Refusal to register memorandum and articles of association

   (1) Notwithstanding the provisions of section 14, the Registrar may, in his absolute discretion, and shall, if so directed by the Minister, refuse to register the memorandum and the articles delivered to him.

   (2) Where the Registrar refuses to register the memorandum and the articles delivered to him, he shall return the same to the person who tendered them for registration, and shall advise such person in writing that in the exercise of the power or, as the case may be, the obligation conferred or imposed upon him by subsection (1) of this section he refuses to register the memorandum and the articles.

   (3) The Registrar shall not be required to assign reasons for his refusals to register the memorandum and the articles.

15.   Effect of registration

   (1) On the registration of the memorandum of a company the Registrar shall certify under his hand that the company is incorporated and, in the case of a limited company, that the company is limited.

   (2) From the date of incorporation mentioned in the certificate of incorporation, the subscribers to the memorandum, together with such other persons as may from time to time become members of the company, shall be a body corporate by the name contained in the memorandum, capable forthwith of exercising all the functions of an incorporated company, with power to hold land and having perpetual succession and a common seal, but with such liability on the part of the members to contribute to the assets of the company in the event of its being wound up as is mentioned in this Act.

16.   Conclusiveness of certificate of incorporation

   (1) A certificate of incorporation given by the Registrar in respect of any association shall be conclusive evidence that all the requirements of this Act in respect of registration and of matters precedent and incidental thereto have been complied with and that the association is a company authorised to be registered and duly registered under this Act.

   (2) A statutory declaration by an advocate of the High Court engaged in the formation of the company, or by a person named in the articles as a director or secretary of the company, of compliance with all or any of the said requirements shall be produced to the Registrar, and the Registrar may accept such a declaration as sufficient evidence of compliance.

17.   Registration of unlimited company as limited

   (1) Subject to the provisions of this section, a company registered as unlimited may register under this Act as limited, or a company already registered as a limited company may re-register under this Act, but the registration of an unlimited company as a limited company shall not affect the rights or liabilities of the company in respect of any debt or obligation incurred, or any contract entered into by, to with, or on behalf of the company before the registration, and those rights or liabilities may be enforced in manner provided by Part X of this Act in the case of a company registered in pursuance of that Part.

   (2) On registration in pursuance of this section the Registrar shall close the former registration of the company, and may dispense with the delivery to him of copies of any documents with copies of which he was furnished on the occasion of the original registration of the company, but, save as aforesaid, the registration shall take place in the same manner and shall have effect as if it were the first registration of the company under this Act.

18.   Prohibition of registration of companies by undesirable names Ord. No. 10 of 1955 s. 4">

   No company shall be registered by a name which, in the opinion of the Registrar, is undesirable.

19.   Powers to dispense with "Limited" in name of charitable and other companies G.N. No. 478 of 1962; G.N. No. 180 of 1967">

   (1) Where it is proved to the satisfaction of the Registrar of Companies that an association about to be formed as a limited company is to be formed for promoting commerce, art, science, religion, charity or any other useful or social object, and intends to apply its profits, if any, or other income in promoting its objects, and to prohibit the payment of any dividend to its members, the Registrar of Companies may by licence under the hand of the Registrar of Companies direct that the association may be registered as a company with limited liability, without the addition of the word "Limited" to its name, and the association may be registered accordingly.

   (2) A licence by the Registrar of Companies under this section may be granted on such conditions and subject to such regulations as the Registrar of Companies thinks fit, and those conditions and regulations shall be binding on the association, and shall, if the Registrar of Companies so directs, be inserted in the memorandum and articles, or in one of those documents.

   (3) The association shall on registration enjoy all the privileges of limited companies, and be subject to all their obligations, except those of using the word "Limited" as any part of its name, and of publishing its name, and of sending lists of members to the Registrar.

   (4) A licence under this section may at any time be revoked by the Registrar of Companies, and upon revocation the Registrar shall enter the word "Limited" at the end of the name of the association upon the register the association shall cease to enjoy the exemptions and privileges granted by this section:

   Provided that, before a licence is so revoked, the Registrar of Companies shall give to the association notice in writing of the intention to revoke, and shall afford the association an opportunity of being heard in opposition to the revocation.

   (5) Where the name of the association contains the words "Chamber of Commerce" the notice to be given as aforesaid shall include a statement of the effect of the provisions of subsection (3) of section 20 of this Act.

20.   Change of name G.N. No. 478 of 1962; G.N. No. 180 of 1967">

   (1) A company may, by special resolution and with the approval of the Registrar signified in writing, change its name.

   (2) If a company, through inadvertence or otherwise, is registered by a name which is identical with that by which a company in existence is previously registered, or which so nearly resembles that name as to be calculated to deceive, the first-mentioned company may change its name with the sanction of the Registrar.

   (3) Where a licence granted in pursuance of section 19 of this Act to a company the name of which contains the words "Chamber of Commerce" is revoked, the company shall, within a period of six weeks from the date of the revocation or such longer period as the Registrar of Companies may think fit to allow, change its name to a name which does not contain those words.

   If a company makes a default in complying with the requirements of this subsection, it shall be liable to a fine not exceeding one thousand shillings for every day during which the default continues.

   (4) Where a company changes its name the Registrar shall enter the new name on the register in place of the former name, and shall issue a certificate of incorporation altered to meet the circumstances of the case.

   (5) The change of name shall not affect any rights or obligations of the company or render defective any legal proceedings by or against the company, and any legal proceedings that might have been continued or commenced against it by its former name may be continued or commenced against it by its new name.

General Provisions with respect to Memorandum and Articles (ss 21-25)

21.   Effect of memorandum and articles

   (1) Subject to the provisions of this Act the memorandum and articles shall, when registered, bind the company and the members thereof to the same extent as if they respectively had been signed and sealed by each member, and contained covenants on the part of each member to observe all the provisions of the memorandum and of the articles.

   (2) All money payable by any member to the company under the memorandum or articles shall be a debt due from him to the company.

22.   Provision as to memorandum and articles of companies limited by guarantee

   (1) In the case of a company limited by guarantee and not having a share capital, and registered after the commencement of this Act, every provision in the memorandum or articles or any resolution of the company purporting to give any person a right to participate in the divisible profits of the company otherwise than as a member shall be void.

   (2) For the purpose of the provisions of this Act relating to the memorandum of a company limited by guarantee and of this section, every provision in the memorandum or articles, or in any resolution, of a company limited by guarantee and registered on or after the date aforesaid, purporting to divide the undertaking of the company into shares or interests shall be treated as a provision for a share capital, notwithstanding that the nominal amount or number of the shares or interests is not specified thereby.

23.   Alterations in memorandum or articles increasing liability to contribute to share capital not to bind existing members without consent

   Notwithstanding anything in the memorandum or articles of a company, no member of the company shall be bound by an alteration made in the memorandum or liability to articles after the date on which he became a member, if and so far as the alteration requires him to take or subscribe for more shares than the number held by him at the date on which the alteration is made, or in any way increases his liability as at that date to contribute to the share capital of, or otherwise to pay money to, the company:

   Provided that this section shall not apply in any case where the member agrees in writing, either before or after the alteration is made, to be bound thereby.

24.   Copies of memorandum and articles to be given to members Act No. 13 of 1991 Sch.">

   (1) A company shall, on being so required by any member, send to him a copy of the memorandum and of the articles, if any, subject to payment of shilling one or such less sum as the company may prescribe.

   (2) If a company makes default in complying with this section, the company and every officer of the company, who is in default shall be liable for each offence to a fine not exceeding five hundred shillings.

25.   Issued copies of memorandum to embody alteration Act No. 13 of 1991 Sch.">

   (1) Where an alteration is made in the memorandum of a company, every copy of the memorandum issued after the date of the alteration shall be in accordance with the alteration.

   (2) If, where any such alteration has been made, the company at any time after the date of alteration issues any copies of the memorandum which are not in accordance with the alteration, it shall be liable to a fine not exceeding one thousand shillings for each copy so issued, and every officer of the company who is in default shall be liable to the like penalty.

Membership of Company (ss 26-28)

26.   Membership of company

   (1) The subscribers to the memorandum of a company shall be deemed to have agreed to become members of the company, and on its registration shall be entered as members in its register of members.

   (2) Every other person who agrees to become a member of a company, and whose name is entered in its register of members, shall be a member of the company.

27.   Meaning of "private company"

   (1) For the purposes of this Act, the expression "private company" means a company which by its articles–

   (a)   restricts the right to transfer its shares; and

   (b)   limits the number of its members to fifty, not including persons who are in the employment of the company and persons who, having been formerly in the employment of the company, were while in that employment, and have continued after the determination of that employment to be, members of the company; and

   (c)   prohibits any invitation to the public to subscribe for any shares or debentures of the company.

   (2) Where two or more persons hold one or more shares in a company jointly, they shall, for the purposes of this section, be treated as a single member.

28.   Circumstances in which company ceases to be, or to enjoy privileges of a private company Act No. 13 of 1991 Sch.">

   (1) If a company, being a private company, alters its articles in such manner that they no longer include the provisions which, under section 27 of this Act, are required to be included in the articles of a company in order to constitute it a private company, the company shall, as on the date of the alteration, cease to be a private company and shall, within a period of fourteen days after the said date, deliver to the Registrar for registration of a prospectus or a statement in lieu of a prospectus in the form and containing the particulars set out in the Second Schedule to this Act.

   (2) If default is made in complying with subsection (1) of this section, the company and every officer of the company who is in default shall be liable to a default fine of five thousand shillings.

   (3) Where the articles of a company include the provisions aforesaid but default is made in complying with any of those provisions, the company shall cease to be entitled to the privileges and exemptions conferred on private companies under the provisions contained in subsection (3) of section 110, subsection (1) of section 130 and paragraph (d) of section 167 of this Act, and thereupon the said provisions shall apply to the company as if it were not a private company:

   Provided that the court, on being satisfied that the failure to comply with the conditions was accidental or due to inadvertence or to some other sufficient cause, or that on other grounds it is just and equitable to grant relief may, on the application of the company or any other person interested and on such terms and conditions as seem to the court just and expedient, order that the company be relieved from such consequences as aforesaid.

Reduction of Number of Members below Legal Minimum (s 29)

29.   Prohibition of carrying on business with fewer than seven or, in the case of a private company, two members

   If at any time the number of members of a company is reduced, in the case of a private company, below two, or, in the case of any other company, below seven, and it carries on business for more than six months while the number is so reduced, every person who is a member of the company during the time that it so carries on business after those six months and is cognisant of the fact that it is carrying on business with fewer than two members, or seven members, as the case may be, shall be severally liable for the payment of the whole debts of the company contracted during that time, and may be severally sued therefor.

Contracts, etc. (ss 30-33)

30.   Form of contracts

   (1) Contracts on behalf of a company may be made as follows–

   (a)   a contract which if made between private persons would be by law required to be in writing, signed by the parties to be charged therewith, may be made on behalf of the company in writing, signed by any person acting under its authority, express or implied;

   (b)   a contract which if made between private persons would by law be valid although made by parole only, and not reduced into writing, may be made by parole on behalf of the company by any person acting under its authority, express or implied.

   (2) A contract made according to this section shall be effectual in law, and shall bind the company and its successors and all other parties thereto.

   (3) A contract made according to this section may be varied or discharged in the same manner in which it is authorised by this section to be made.

31.   Bills of exchange and promissory notes

   A bill of exchange or promissory note shall be deemed to have been made, accepted, or endorsed on behalf of a company if made, accepted, or endorsed in the name of, or by or on behalf or on account of the company by any person acting under its authority express or implied.

32.   Execution of deeds abroad

   (1) A company may, by writing under its common seal, empower any person, either generally or in respect of any specified matters, as its attorney, to execute deeds on its behalf in any place not situate in Tanzania.

   (2) A deed signed by such an attorney on behalf of the company and under his seal shall bind the company and have the same effect as if it were under its common seal.

33.   Power for company to have official seal for use abroad

   (1) A company whose objects require or comprise the transaction of business beyond the limits of Tanzania may, if authorised by its articles, have for use in any country, district or place not situate in Tanzania, an official seal, which shall be a facsimile of the common seal of the company, with the addition on its face of the name of every country, district or place where it is to be used.

   (2) A deed or other documents to which an official seal is duly affixed shall bind the company as if it had been sealed with the common seal of the company.

   (3) A company having an official seal for use in any such country, district or place may, by writing under its common seal authorise any person appointed for the purpose in that country, district or place, to affix the official seal to any deed or other document to which the company is party in that country, district or place.

   (4) The authority of any such agent shall, as between the company and any person dealing with the agent, continue during the period, if any, mentioned in the instrument conferring the authority, or if no period is there mentioned, then until notice of the revocation or determination of the agent's authority has been given to the person dealing with him.

   (5) The person affixing any such official seal shall, by writing under his hand, certify on the deed or other instrument to which the seal is affixed, the date on which and the place at which it is affixed.

Authentication of Documents (s 34)

34.   Authentication of documents

   A document or proceeding requiring authentication by a company may be signed by a director, secretary, or other authorised officer of the company, and need not be under its common seal.

PART III
SHARE CAPITAL AND DEBENTURES (ss 35-78)

Prospectus (ss 35-39)

35.   Dating and registration of prospectus Acts Nos. 6 of 1994 Sch.; 4 of 1997 s. 21">

   (1) A prospectus issued by or on behalf of a company or in relation to an intended company shall be dated, and that date shall, unless the contrary is proved, be taken as the date of publication of the prospectus.

    (2) A copy of every such prospectus, signed by every person who is named therein as a director or proposed director of the company, or by his agent authorised in writing, shall be delivered to the Registrar for registration on or before the date of its publication, and no such prospectus shall be issued until a copy thereof has been so delivered for registration and it has been registered by the Registrar.

   (3) The Registrar shall not register any prospectus unless it is dated, the copy thereof signed, in manner required by this section and the prospectus has been approved by the Capital Markets and Securities Authority.

   (4) Every prospectus shall state on the face of it that a copy has been delivered for registration as required by this section.

   (5) If a prospectus is issued without a copy thereof being so delivered, the company, and every person who is knowingly a party to the issue of the prospectus, shall be liable to a fine not exceeding one hundred shillings for every day from the date of issue of the prospectus until a copy thereof is so delivered.

35A.   Expert statements on a prospectus Act No. 6 of 1994 Sch.">

   (1) If any prospectus relating to an offer to the public in respect of any shares or debentures of a company includes a statement purporting to be made by an expert such a prospectus shall not be delivered for registration unless–

   (a)   such an expert has given his written consent (which shall be endorsed thereon or attached thereto) and has not, before delivery of the prospectus for registration in accordance with section 35, withdrawn such consent to the publication of the prospectus with the inclusion of the statement in the form and context in which it is included; and

   (b)   a statement that he has given and not withdrawn his consent appears in the prospectus.

   (2) If after delivery of the prospectus for registration but prior to the registration thereof any such expert withdraws his consent the person who has delivered the prospectus for registration shall immediately notify the Registrar.

   (3) For the purpose of this section the word "expert" has the meaning ascribed to it by section 38(4) of the Act.

35B.   Prospectus on approved stock exchange Act No. 6 of 1994 Sch.">

   (1) Where a prospectus relates to shares or debentures dealt in on an approved stock exchange or states that the application has been or will be made to an approved stock exchange for permission to deal in the shares or debentures to which it relates, there shall be delivered to the Registrar with the certificate signed by or on behalf of that approved stock exchange, that the prospectus has been scrutinised by the stock exchange and that its requirements relating to the intents thereof have been satisfied, and the Registrar shall thereupon register the prospectus within 48 hours of the delivery of such a prospectus to him, unless it is incomplete or irregular on its face or prior to registration any consent of an expert required by section 35A has been withdrawn.

   (2) For cases which do not fall within subsection (1) of this section, the Registrar shall register the prospectus and any documents required to be endorsed thereon or attached thereto at the expiration of 21 days from the date of the delivery to him in accordance with section 35, or such shorter time as he may allow in any particular case, unless any consent of an expert required by section 35A above has been withdrawn or unless in the opinion of the Registrar, the prospectus does not comply with the provisions of this Act or contains any untrue statement or omits to state any material fact or is otherwise incomplete or misleading, in which case he shall refuse to register the same until any necessary consents are given or the prospectus is amended to the Registrar's satisfaction.

   (3) Where there is a refusal by the Registrar to register a prospectus, the company or any other person who has delivered the prospectus for registration may apply to the court which, after hearing the applicant and the Registrar, and such evidence as they may call, may either order the Registrar to register the prospectus or may dismiss the application and prohibit any person before the court from publishing the prospectus until it has been amended to the satisfaction of the Registrar. If the court orders the prospectus to be registered it shall be registered by the Registrar upon delivery to him of an office copy of the order.

   (4) Every copy of any prospectus which has been delivered for registration in accordance with the of provisions of section 35 of the ordinance shall state at its head the following:

    "A copy of this prospectus as been delivered to the Registrar of Companies, Tanzania, for registration. The Registrar has not checked and will not check the accuracy of any statements made and accepts no responsibility therefor or for the financial soundness of the company or the value of the securities concerned."

36.   Specific requirements as to particulars in prospectus Act No. 13 of 1991 Sch.">

   (1) Every prospectus issued by or on behalf of a company, or on behalf of any person who is or has been engaged or interested in the formation of the company, must state the matter specified in Part I of the Third Schedule to this Act and set out the reports specified in Part II of that Schedule, and the said Parts I and II shall have effect subject to the provisions contained in Part III of the Schedule.

   (2) A condition requiring or binding an applicant for shares in or debentures of a company to waive compliance with any requirement of this section, or purporting to effect him with notice of any contract, document, or matter not specifically referred to in the prospectus, shall be void.

   (3) It shall not be lawful to issue any form of application for shares in or debentures of a company unless the form is issued with a prospectus which complies with the requirements of this section:

   Provided that this subsection shall not apply if it is shown that the form of application was issued either–

   (a)   in connection with a bona fide invitation to a person to enter into an underwriting agreement with respect to the shares or debentures; or

   (b)   in relation to shares or debentures which were not offered to the public.

   If any person acts in contravention of the provisions of this subsection he shall be liable to a fine not exceeding one hundred thousand shillings.

   (4) In the event of non-compliance with or contravention of any of the requirements of this section, a director or other person responsible for the prospectus shall not incur any liability by reason of the non-compliance or contravention, if–

   (a)   as regards any matter not disclosed, he proves that he was not cognisant thereof; or

   (b)   he proves that the non-compliance or contravention arose from an honest mistake of fact on his part; or

   (c)   the non-compliance or contravention was in respect of matters which in the opinion of the court dealing with the case were immaterial or was otherwise such as ought, in the opinion of that court, having regard to all the circumstances of the case, reasonably to be excused:

   Provided that, in the event of failure to include in a prospectus a statement with respect to the matters specified in paragraph 15 of Part I of the Third Schedule to this Act, no director or other person shall incur any liability in respect of the failure unless it be proved that he had knowledge of the matters not disclosed.

   (5) This section shall not apply to the issue to existing members or debenture holders of a company of a prospectus or form of application relating to shares in or debentures of the company, whether an applicant for shares or debentures will or will not have the right to renounce in favour of other persons, but subject as aforesaid, this section shall apply to a prospectus or a form of application whether issued on or with reference to the formation of a company or subsequently.

   (6) Nothing in this section shall limit or diminish any liability which any person may incur under the general law or this Act apart from this section.

37.   Restriction on alteration of terms mentioned in prospectus or statement in lieu of prospectus

   (1) A company limited by shares or a company limited by guarantee and having a share capital shall not previously to the statutory meeting vary the terms of a contract referred to in the prospectus, or statement in lieu of prospectus, except subject to the approval of the statutory meeting.

   (2) This section shall not apply to a private company.

38.   Liability for statement in prospectus

   (1) Where a prospectus invites persons to subscribe for shares in or debentures of a company–

   (a)   every person who is a director of the company at the time of the issue of the prospectus; and

   (b)   every person who has authorised himself to be named and is named in the prospectus as a director or as having agreed to become a director either immediately or after an interval of time; and

   (c)   every person being a promoter of the company; and

   (d)   every person who has authorised the issue of the prospectus, shall be liable to pay compensation to all persons who subscribe for any shares or debentures on the faith of the prospectus for the loss or damage they may have sustained by reason of any untrue statement therein, or in any report or memorandum appearing on the face thereof, or by reference incorporated therein or issued therewith, unless it is proved–

      (i)   that having consented to become a director of the company he withdrew his consent before the issue of the prospectus, and that it was issued without his authority or consent; or

      (ii)   that the prospectus was issued without his knowledge or consent, and that on becoming aware of its issue he forthwith gave reasonable public notice that it was issued without his knowledge or consent; or

      (iii)   that after the issue of the prospectus and before allotment thereunder, he, on becoming aware of any untrue statement therein, withdrew his consent thereto and gave reasonable public notice of the withdrawal, and of the reason therefor; or

      (iv)   that–

         (a)   as regards every untrue statement not purporting to be made on the authority of an expert or of a public official document or statement, he had reasonable grounds to believe, and did up to the time of the allotment of the shares or debentures, as the case may be, believe, that the statement was true; and

         (b)   as regards every untrue statement purporting to be a statement by an expert or contained in what purports to be a copy of or extract from a report or valuation of an expert, it fairly represented the statement, or was a correct and fair copy of or extract from the report or valuation; and

         (c)   as regards every untrue statement purporting to be a statement made by an official person or contained in what purports to be a copy of or extract from a public official document, it was a correct and fair representation of the statement or copy of or extract from the document:

   Provided that a person shall be liable to pay compensation as aforesaid if it is proved that he had no reasonable grounds to believe that the person making any such mentioned in paragraph (iv)(b) of this subsection was competent to make it.

   (2) Where the prospectus contains the name of a person as a director of the company, or as having agreed to become a director thereof, and he has not consented to become a director, or has withdrawn his consent before the issue of the prospectus, and he has not authorised or consented to the issue thereof, the directors of the company, except any without whose knowledge or consent the prospectus was issued, and any other person who authorised the issue thereof, shall be liable to indemnify the person named as aforesaid against all damages, costs, and expenses to which he may be liable by reason of his name having been inserted in the prospectus, or in defending himself against any action or legal proceedings brought against him in respect thereof.

   (3) Every person who, by reason of his being a director or named as a director or as having agreed to become a director, or of his having authorised the issue of the prospectus, becomes liable to make any payment under this section may recover contribution, as in cases of contract, from any other person who, if sued separately, would have been liable to make same payment, unless the person who has become so liable was, and that other person was not, guilty of fraudulent misrepresentation.

   (4) For the purposes of this section–

    (a)   the expression "promoter" means a promoter who was a party to the preparation of the prospectus, or of the portion thereof containing the untrue statement, but does not include any person by reason of his acting in a professional capacity for persons engaged in procuring the formation of the company;

   (b)   the expression "expert" includes engineer, valuer, accountant, and any other person whose profession gives authority to a statement made by him.

39.   Document containing offer of shares or debentures for sale to be deemed prospectus

   (1) When a company allots or agrees to allot any shares in or debentures of the company with a view to all or any of those shares or debentures being offered for sale to the public, any document by which the offer for sale to the public is made shall for all purposes be deemed to be a prospectus and all enactments and rules of law as to the contents of prospectuses and to liability in respect of the statements in and omissions from prospectuses, or otherwise relating to prospectuses, shall apply and have effect accordingly, as if the shares or debentures had been offered to the public for subscription and as if persons accepting the offer in respect of any shares or debentures were subscribers for those shares or debentures, but without prejudice to the liability, if any, of the persons by whom the offer is made, in respect of misstatements contained in the document or otherwise in respect thereof.

   (2) For the purposes of this Act, it shall, unless the contrary is proved, be evidence that an allotment of, or an agreement to allot, shares or debentures was made with a view to the shares or debentures being offered for sale to the public if it is shown–

   (a)   that an offer of the shares or debentures or of any of them for sale to the public was made within six months after the allotment or agreement to allot; or

   (b)   that at the date when the offer was made the whole consideration to be received by the company in respect of the shares or debentures had not been so received.

   (3) Section 35 of this Act as applied by this section shall have effect as though the persons making the offer were persons named in a prospectus as directors of a company, and section 36 of this Act as applied by this section shall have effect as if it required a prospectus to state in addition to the matters required by that section to be stated in a prospectus–

   (a)   the net amount of the consideration received or to be received by the company in respect of the shares or debentures to which the offer relates; and

   (b)   the place and time at which the contract under which the said shares or debentures have been or are to be allotted may be inspected.

   (4) Where a person making an offer to which this section relates is a company or a firm, it shall be sufficient if the document aforesaid is signed on behalf of the company or firm by two directors of the company or not less than half of the partners, as the case may be and any such director or partner may sign by his agent authorised in writing.

Allotment (ss 40-43)

40.   Prohibition of allotment unless minimum subscription received

   (1) No allotment shall be made of any share capital of a company offered to the public for subscription unless the amount stated in the prospectus as, the minimum amount which, in the opinion of the directors, must be raised by the issue of share capital in order to provide for the matters specified in paragraph 5 in Part I of the Third Schedule to this Act has been subscribed, and the sum payable on application for the amount so stated has been paid to and received by the company.

   For the purposes of this subsection, a sum shall be deemed to have been paid to and received by the company if a cheque for that sum has been received in good faith by the company and the directors of the company have no reason for suspecting that the cheque will not be paid.

   (2) The amount so stated in the prospectus shall be reckoned exclusively of any amount payable otherwise than in cash and is in this Act referred to as "the minimum subscription".

   (3) The amount payable on application on each share shall not be less than five percent of the nominal amount of the share.

   (4) The amount paid on application shall be set apart by the directors as a separate fund and shall not be available for the purposes of the company or the satisfaction of its debts until the minimum subscription has been made up.

   (5) If the conditions aforesaid have not been complied with on the expiration of one hundred and twenty days after the first issue of the prospectus all money received from applicants for shares shall be forthwith repaid to them without interest, and, if any such money is not so repaid within one hundred and thirty days after the issue of the prospectus, the directors of the company shall be jointly and severally liable to repay that money with interest at the rate of five percent per annum from the expiration of the one hundred and thirtieth day:

   Provided that a director shall not be liable if he proves that the default in the repayment of the money was not due to any misconduct or negligence on his part.

   (6) Any condition requiring or binding any applicant for shares to waive compliance with any requirement of this section shall be void.

   (7) This section, except subsection (3) thereof, shall not apply to any allotment of shares subsequent to the first allotment of shares offered to the public for subscription.

41.   Prohibition of allotment in certain cases unless statement in lieu of prospectus delivered to Registrar Act No. 13 of 1991 Sch.">

   (1) A company having a share capital which does not issue a prospectus on or with reference to its formation, or which has issued such a prospectus but has not proceeded to allot any of the shares offered to the public for subscription, shall not allot any of its shares or debentures unless at least three days before the first allotment of either shares or debentures there has been delivered to the Registrar for registration a statement in lieu of a prospectus, signed by every person who is named therein as a director or proposed director of the company or by his agent authorised in writing, in the form and containing the particulars set out in the Fourth Schedule to this Act.

   (2) This section shall not apply to a private company.

   (3) If a company acts in contravention of this section, the company and every director of the company who knowingly authorises or permits the contravention shall be liable to a fine not exceeding fifty thousand shillings.

42.   Effect of irregular allotment

   (1) An allotment made by a company to an applicant in contravention of the provisions of sections 40 and 41 of this Act, shall be voidable at the instance of the applicant within one month after the holding of the statutory meeting of the company and not later, or, in any case where the company is not required to hold a statutory meeting, or where the allotment is made after the holding of the statutory meeting, within one month after the date of the allotment, and not later, and shall be so voidable notwithstanding that the company is in course of being wound up.

   (2) If any director of a company knowingly contravenes, or permits or authorises the contravention of, any of the provisions of the said sections with respect to allotment, he shall be liable to compensate the company and allottee respectively for any loss, damages, or cost which the company or allottee may have sustained or incurred thereby:

   Provided that proceedings to recover any such loss, damages, or costs shall not be commenced after the expiration of two years from the date of the allotment.

43.   Return as to allotment

   (1) Whenever a company limited by shares or a company limited by guarantee and and having a share capital makes any allotment of its shares, the company shall within sixty days thereafter deliver to the Registrar for registration–

   (a)   a return of the allotments stating the number and nominal amount of the shares comprised in the allotment, the names, addresses, and descriptions of the allottees, and the amount, if any, paid or due and payable on each share; and

   (b)   in the case of shares allotted as fully or partly paid up otherwise than in cash, a contract in writing constituting the title of the allottee to the allotment together with any contract of sale, or for services or other consideration in respect of which that allotment was made, such contracts being duly stamped, together with copies of such contracts verified in the prescribed manner and a return stating the number and nominal amount of shares so allotted, the extent to which they are to be treated as paid up, and the consideration for which they have been allotted.

   (2) Where such contract as mentioned in subsection (1) is not reduced to writing, the company shall within sixty days after the allotment deliver to the Registrar for registration the prescribed particulars of the contract stamped with the same stamp duty as would have been payable if the contract had been reduced to writing, and those particulars shall be deemed to be an instrument within the meaning of the Stamp Duty Act *, and the Registrar may, as a condition of filing the particulars, require that the duty payable thereon be adjudicated under section 37 of that Act.

   (3) If default is made in complying with this section, every director, manager, secretary or other officer of the company who is knowingly a party to the default, shall be liable to a fine not exceeding one thousand shillings for every day during which the default continues:

   Provided that, in case of default in delivering to the Registrar within sixty days after the allotment any document required to be delivered by this section, the company, or any person liable for the default, may apply to the court for relief, and the court, if satisfied that the omission to deliver the document was accidental or due to inadvertence or that it is just and equitable to grant relief, may make an order extending the time for the delivery of the document for such period as the court may think proper.

Commissions and Discounts (ss 44-46)

44.   Power to pay certain commissions, and prohibition of payment of all other commissions, discounts, etc. Act No. 13 of 1991 Sch.">

   (1) It shall be lawful for a company to pay commission to any person in consideration of his subscribing or agreeing to subscribe, whether absolutely or conditionally, for any shares in the company or procuring or agreeing to procure subscriptions, whether absolute or conditional, for any shares in the company if–

   (a)   the payment of the commission is authorised by the articles; and

   (b)   the commission paid or agreed to be paid does not exceed ten percent, of the price at which the shares are issued or the amount or rate authorised by the articles, whichever is the less; and

   (c)   the amount or rate percent of the commission paid or agreed to be paid is–

      (i)   in the case of shares offered to the public for subscription, disclosed in the prospectus; or

      (ii)   in the case of shares not offered to the public for subscription, disclosed in the statement in lieu of prospectus, or in a statement in the prescribed form signed in like manner as a statement in lieu of prospectus and delivered before the payment of the commission to the Registrar for registration, and, where a circular or notice, not being a prospectus, inviting subscription for the shares is issued, also disclosed in that circular or notice; and

   (d)   the number of shares which persons have agreed for a commission to subscribe absolutely is disclosed in manner aforesaid.

   (2) Save as aforesaid, no company shall apply any of its shares or capital money either directly or indirectly in payment of any commission, discount or allowance, to any person in consideration of his subscribing or agreeing to subscribe, whether absolutely or conditionally, for any shares of the company, or procuring or agreeing to procure subscriptions, whether absolute or conditional, for any shares in the company whether the shares or money be so applied by being added to the purchase money of any property acquired by the company or to the contract price of any work to be executed for the company, or the money be paid out of the nominal purchase money or contract price, or otherwise.

   (3) Nothing in this section shall affect the power of any company to pay such brokerage as it has heretofore been lawful for a company to pay.

   (4) A vendor to, promoter of or other person who receives payments in money or shares from a company shall have and shall be deemed always to have had power to apply any part of the money or shares so received in payment of any commission, the payment of which, if made directly by the company, would have been legal under this section.

   (5) If default is made in complying with the provisions of this section in relation to the delivery to the Registrar of the statement in the prescribed form, the company and every officer of the company who is in default shall be liable to a fine not exceeding five hundred shillings.

45.   Statement in balance sheet as to commissions and discounts

   (1) Where a company has paid any sums by way of commission in respect of any shares or debentures, or allowed any sums by way of discount in respect of any debentures, the total amount so paid or allowed, or so much thereof as has not been written off, shall be stated in every balance sheet of the company until the whole amount thereof has been written off.

   (2) If default is made in complying with this section, the company and every officer of the company who is in default shall be liable to a default fine.

46.   Prohibition of provision of financial assistance by company for purchase of its own shares Act No. 13 of 1991 Sch.">

   (1) Subject as provided in this section, it shall not be lawful for a company to give, whether directly or indirectly and whether by means of a loan, guarantee, the provision of security or otherwise, any financial assistance for the purpose of or in connection with a purchase made or to be made by any person of any shares in the company:

   Provided that nothing in this section shall be taken to prohibit–

   (a)   where the lending of money is part of the ordinary business of a company, the lending of money by the company in the ordinary course of its business;

   (b)   the provision by a company, in accordance with any scheme for the time being in force, of money for the purchase by trustees of fully-paid shares in the company to be held by or for the benefit of employees of the company, including any director holding a salaried employment or office in the company;

   (c)   the making by a company of loans to persons, other than directors, bona fide in the employment of the company with a view to enabling those persons to purchase fully-paid up shares in the company to be held by themselves by way of beneficial ownership.

   (2) The aggregate amount of any outstanding loans made under the authority of provisos (b) and (c) to subsection (1) of this section shall be shown as a separate item in every balance sheet of the company.

   (3) If a company acts in contravention of this section, the company and every officer of the company who is in default shall be liable to a fine not exceeding twenty thousand shillings.

Issue of Redeemable Preference Shares and Shares at Discount (ss 47-48)

47.   Power to issue redeemable preference shares Act No. 13 of 1991 Sch.">

   (1) Subject to the provisions of this section, a company limited by shares may, if so authorised by its articles, issue preference shares which are, or at the option of the company are to be liable, to be redeemed:

   Provided that–

   (a)   no such shares shall be redeemed except out of profits of the company which would otherwise be available for dividend or out of the proceeds of a fresh issue of shares made for the purposes of the redemption;

   (b)   no such shares shall be redeemed unless they are fully paid;

   (c)   where any such shares are redeemed otherwise than out of the proceeds of a fresh issue, there shall, out of profits which would otherwise have been available for dividend be transferred to a reserve fund, to be called "the capital redemption reserve fund", a sum equal to the amount applied in redeeming the shares, and the provisions of this Act, relating to the reduction of the share capital of a company shall, except as provided in this section, apply as if the capital redemption reserve fund were paid-up share capital of the company;

   (d)   where any such shares are redeemed out of the proceeds of a fresh issue, the premium, if any, payable on redemption, must have been provided for out of the profits of the company before the shares are redeemed.

   (2) There shall be included in every balance sheet of a company which has issued redeemable preference shares a statement specifying what part of the issued capital of the company consists of such shares and the date on or before which those shares are, or are to be liable, to be redeemed.

   If a company fails to comply with the provisions of this subsection, the company and every officer of the company who is in default shall be liable to a fine not exceeding twenty thousand shillings.

   (3) Subject to the provisions of this section, the redemption of preference shares thereunder may be effected on such terms and in such manner as may be provided by the articles of the company.

   (4) Where in pursuance of this section a company has redeemed or is about to redeem any preference shares, it shall have power to issue shares up to the nominal amount of the shares redeemed or to be redeemed as if those shares had never been issued, and accordingly the share capital of the company shall not, for the purposes of any enactments relating to stamp duty, be deemed to be increased by the issue of shares in pursuance of this subsection:

   Provided that, where new shares are issued before the redemption of the old shares, the new shares shall not, so far as relates to stamp duty, be deemed to have been issued in pursuance of this subsection unless the old shares are redeemed within one month after the issue of the new shares.

   (5) Where new shares have been issued in pursuance of subsection (4), the capital redemption reserve fund may, notwithstanding anything in this section, be applied by the company, up to an amount equal to the nominal amount of the shares so issued, in paying up unissued shares of the company to be issued to members of the company as fully paid bonus shares.

48.   Power to issue shares at a discount

   (1) Subject as provided in this section, it shall be lawful for a company to issue at a discount shares in the company of a class already issued:

   Provided that–

   (a)   the issue of the shares at a discount must be authorised by resolution passed in general meeting of the company, and must be sanctioned by the court;

   (b)   the resolution must specify the maximum rate of discount at which the shares are to be issued;

   (c)   not less than one year must at the date of the issue have elapsed since the date on which the company was entitled to commence business; and

   (d)   the shares to be issued at a discount must be issued within one month after the date on which the issue is sanctioned by the court or within such extended time as the court may allow.

   (2) Where a company has passed a resolution authorising the issue of shares at a discount, it may apply to the court for an order sanctioning the issue, and on any such application the court, if, having regard to all the circumstances of the case, it thinks proper so to do, may make an order sanctioning the issue on such terms and conditions as it thinks fit.

   (3) Every prospectus relating to the issue of the shares and every balance sheet issued by the company subsequently to the issue of the shares must contain particulars of the discount allowed on the issue of the shares or of so much of that discount as has not been written off at the date of the issue of the document in question.

   If default is made in complying with this subsection, the company and every officer of the company who is in default shall be liable to a default fine.

Miscellaneous Provisions as to Share Capital (ss 49-55)

49.   Power of company to arrange for different amounts being paid on shares

   A company, if so authorised by its articles may do any one or more of the following things–

   (a)   make arrangements on the issue of shares for a difference between the shareholders in the amounts and times of payment of calls on their shares;

   (b)   accept from any member the whole or a part of the amount remaining unpaid on any shares held by him, although no part of that amount has been called up;

   (c)   pay dividend in proportion to the amount paid up on each share where a larger amount is paid up on some shares than on others.

50.   Reserve liability of limited company

   A limited company may by special resolution determine that any portion of its share capital which has not been already called up shall not be capable of being called up, except in the event and for the purposes of the company being wound up, and thereupon that portion of its share capital shall not be capable of being called up except in the event and for the purposes aforesaid.

51.   Power of company limited by shares to alter share capital

   (1) A company limited by shares or a company guarantee and having a share capital, if so authorised by its articles, may alter the conditions of its memorandum as follows, that is to say, it may–

   (a)   increase its share capital by new shares of such amount as it thinks expedient;

   (b)   consolidate and divide all or any of its share capital into shares of larger amount than its existing shares;

   (c)   convert all or any of its paid-up shares into stock, and re-convert that stock into paid-up shares of any denomination; and

   (d)   subdivide its shares, or any of them, into shares of smaller amount than is fixed by the memorandum, so, however, that in the subdivision the proportion between the amount paid and the amount, if any, unpaid on each reduced share shall be the same as it was in the case of the share from which the reduced share is derived;

   (e)   cancel shares which, at the date of the passing of the resolution in that behalf, have not been taken or agreed to be taken by any person and diminish the amount of its share capital by the amount of the shares so cancelled.

   (2) The powers conferred by this section must be exercised by the company in general meeting.

   (3) A cancellation of shares in pursuance of this section shall not be deemed to be a reduction of share capital within the meaning of this Act.

52.   Notice to Registrar of consolidation of share capital conversion of shares into stock, etc.

   (1) If a company having a share capital has–

   (a)   consolidated and divided its share capital into shares of larger amount, than its existing shares; or

   (b)   converted any shares into stock; or

   (c)   re-converted stock into shares; or

   (d)   subdivided its shares or any of them; or

   (e)   redeemed any redeemable preference shares; or

   (f)   cancelled any shares, otherwise than in connection with a reduction of share capital under section 56 of this Act,

it shall within one month after so doing give notice thereof to the Registrar specifying, as the case may be, the shares consolidated, divided, converted, subdivided, redeemed or cancelled, or the stock reconverted.

   (2) If default is made in complying with this section, the company and every officer of the company who is in default shall be liable to a default fine.

53.   Notice of increase of share capital

   (1) Where a company having a share capital, whether its shares have or have not been converted into stock, has increased its share capital beyond the registered capital it shall within fifteen days after the passing of the resolution authorising the increasing, give to the Registrar notice of the increase, and the Registrar shall record the increase.

   (2) The notice to be given as aforesaid shall include such particulars as may be prescribed with respect to the classes of shares affected and the conditions subject to which the new shares have been or are to be issued, and there shall be forwarded to the Registrar together with the notice a printed copy of the resolution authorising the increase.

   (3) If default is made in complying with this section, the company and every officer of the company who is in default shall be liable to a default line.

54.   Power of unlimited company to provide for reserve share capital on re-registration

   An unlimited company having a share capital may, by its resolution for registration as limited company in pursuance of this Act, do either or both of the following things, namely–

   (a)   increase the nominal amount of its share capital by increasing the nominal amount of each of its shares, but subject to the condition that no part of the increased capital shall be capable of being called up except in the event and for the purposes of the company being wound up;

   (b)   provide that a specified portion of its uncalled share capital shall not be capable of being called up except in the event and for the purposes of the company being wound up.

55.   Power of company to pay interest out of capital in certain cases G.N. No. 478 of 1962; Act No. 13 of 1991 Sch.">

   (1) Where any shares of a company are issued for the purpose of raising money to defray the expenses of the construction of any works or buildings or the provision of any plant which cannot be made profitable for a lengthened period, the company may pay interest on so much of that share capital as is for the time being paid up for the period and subject to the conditions and restrictions in this section mentioned, and may charge the sum so paid by way of interest to capital as part of the cost of construction of the work or building, or the provision of plant:

   Provided that–

   (a)   no such payment shall be made unless it is authorised by the articles or by special resolution;

   (b)   no such payment, whether authorised by the articles or by special resolution, shall be made without the previous sanction of the Minister which sanction shall be conclusive evidence for the purpose of this section that the shares of the company in respect of which such sanction is given have been issued for a purpose specified in this section;

   (c)   before sanctioning any such payment the Minister may, at the expense of the company, appoint a person to inquire and report to him as to the circumstances of the case, and may, before making the appointment, require the company to give security for the payment of the costs of the inquiry;

   (d)   the payment shall be made only for such period as may be determined by the Minister, and that period shall in no case extend beyond the close of the half year next after the half year during which the works or buildings have been actually completed or the plant provided;

   (e)   the rate of interest shall in no case exceed four percent per annum or such other rate as the Minister may for the time being by notice in the Gazette prescribe;

   (f)   the payment of the interest shall not operate as a reduction of the amount paid up on the shares in respect of which it is paid; and

   (g)   the accounts of the company shall show the share capital on which, and the rate at which, interest has been paid out of capital during the period to which the accounts relate.

   (2) If default is made in complying with proviso (g) to subsection (1) of this section, the company and every officer of the company who is in default shall be liable to a fine not exceeding ten thousand shillings.

Reduction of Share Capital (ss 56-61)

56.   Special resolution for reduction of share capital Act No. 4 of 1997 s. 21">

   (1) No company limited by shares and no company limited by guarantee and having a share capital shall have power to buy its own shares unless a consequent reduction of capital is effected and sanctioned in manner hereinafter provided.

   (2) Subject to confirmation by the court, a company limited by shares or a company limited by guarantee having a share capital may, if so authorised by its articles, by special resolution reduce its share capital in any way, and in particular, without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing power may–

   (a)   extinguish or reduce the liability on any of its shares in respect of share capital not paid up; or

   (b)   either with or without extinguishing or reducing liability on any of its shares, cancel any paid-up share capital which is lost or unrepresented by available assets; or

   (c)   either with or without extinguishing or reducing liability on any of its shares, pay off any paid-up share capital which is in excess of the wants of the company,

and may, if and so far as is necessary, alter its memorandum by reducing the amount of its share capital and of its shares accordingly.

   (3) A special resolution under this section is in this Act referred to as "a resolution for reducing share capital".

   (4) Sections 56(1) and 60 shall not apply to an open ended investment company whose establishment has been duly authorised under the Capital Markets and Securities Act *.

57.   Application to court for confirming order, objections by creditors, and settlement of list of objecting creditors

   (1) Where a company has passed a resolution for reducing share capital, it may apply by petition to the court for an order confirming the reduction.

   (2) Where the proposed reduction of share capital involves either diminution of liability in respect of unpaid share capital or the payment to any shareholder of any paid up share capital, and in any case if the court so directs, the following provisions shall have effect, subject nevertheless to subsection (3)–

   (a)   every creditor of the company who at the date fixed by the court is entitled to any debt or claim which, if that date were the commencement of the winding up of the company, would be admissible in proof against the company, shall be entitled to object to the reduction;

   (b)   the court shall settle a list of creditors so entitled to object, and for that purpose shall ascertain, as far as possible without requiring an application from any creditor, the names of those creditors and the nature and the amount of their debts or claims, and may publish notices fixing a day or days within which creditors not entered on the list are to claim to be so entered or are to be excluded from the right of objecting to the reduction;

   (c)   where a creditor entered on the list whose debt or claim is not discharged or has not determined does not consent to the reduction the court may, if it thinks fit, dispense with consent of the creditor on the company securing payment of his debt or claim by appropriating, as the court may direct the following amount–

      (i)   if the company admits the full amount of the debt or claim, or, though not admitting it, is willing to provide for it, then the full amount of the debt or claim;

      (ii)   if the company does not admit and is not willing to provide for the full amount of the debt or claim, or if the amount is contingent or not ascertained, then an amount fixed by the court after the like inquiry and adjudication as if the company were being wound up by the court.

   (3) Where a proposed reduction of share capital involves either the diminution of any liability in respect of unpaid share capital or the payment to any shareholder of any paid-up share capital, the court may, if having regard to any special circumstances of the case it thinks proper to do, direct that subsection (2) of this section shall not apply as regards any class or any classes of creditors.

58.   Order confirming reduction and powers of court on making such order

   (1) The court, if satisfied, with respect to every creditor of the company who under section 57 is entitled to object to the reduction, that either his consent to the reduction has been obtained or his debt or claim has been discharged or has determined, or has been secured, may make an order confirming, the reduction on such terms and conditions as it thinks fit.

   (2) Where the court makes any such order, it may–

   (a)   if for any special reason it thinks proper so to do, make an order directing that the company shall, during such period, commencing on or at any time after the date of the order, as is specified in the order, add to its name as the last words thereof the words "and reduced"; and

   (b)   make an order requiring the company to publish as the court directs the reason for reduction or such other information in regard thereto as the court may think expedient with a view to giving proper information to the public, and, if the court thinks fit, the causes which led to the reduction.

   (3) Where a company is ordered to add to its name the words "and reduced", those words shall, until the expiration of the period specified in the order, be deemed to be part of the name of the company.

59.   Registration of order and minute of reduction

   (1) The Registrar, on production to him of an order of the court confirming the reduction of the share capital of a company and delivery to him of a copy of the order and of a minute approved by the court, showing with respect to the share capital of the company, as altered by the order, the amount of the share capital, the number of shares into which it is to be divided and the amount of each share, and the amount, if any, at the date of the registration deemed to be paid-up on each share, shall register the order and minute.

   (2) On the registration of the order and minute, and not before, the resolution for reducing share capital as confirmed by the order so registered shall take effect.

   (3) Notice of the registration shall be published in such manner as the court may direct.

   (4) The Registrar shall certify under his hand the registration of the order and minute, and his certificate shall be conclusive evidence that all the requirements of this Act with respect to reduction of share capital have been complied with, and that the share capital of the company is such as is stated in the minute.

   (5) The minute when registered shall be deemed to be substituted for the corresponding part of the memorandum, and shall be valid and alterable as if it had been originally contained therein.

   (6) The substitution of any such minute as aforesaid for part of the memorandum of the company shall be deemed to be an alteration of the memorandum within the meaning of section 25 of this Act.

60.   Liability of members in respect of reduced shares

   (1) In the case of a reduction of share capital, a member of the company, past or present, shall not be liable in respect of any share to any call or contribution exceeding in amount the difference, if any, between the amount of the share as fixed by the minute and the amount paid, or the reduced amount, if any, which is to be deemed to have been paid, on the share, as the case may be:

   Provided that, if any creditor, entitled in respect of any debt or claim to object to the reduction of share capital, is, by reason of his ignorance of the proceedings for reduction, or of their nature and effect with respect to his claim, not entered on the list of creditors, and, after the reduction, the company is unable, within the meaning of the provisions of this Act with respect to winding up by the court, to pay the amount of his debt or claim, then–

   (a)   every person who was a member of the company at the date of the registration of the order for reduction and minute, shall be liable to contribute for the payment of that debt or claim an amount not exceeding the amount which he would have been liable to contribute if the company had commenced to be wound up on the day before the said date; and

   (b)   if the company is wound up, the court, on the application of any such creditor and proof of his ignorance as aforesaid, may, if it thinks fit, settle accordingly a list of persons so liable to contribute, and make and enforce calls and orders on the contributories settled on the list, as if they were ordinary contributories in a winding up.

   (2) Nothing in this section shall affect the rights of the contributories among themselves.

61.   Penalty on concealment of name of creditor Act No. 13 of 1991 Sch.">

   If any director, manager, secretary or other officer of the company–

   (a)   wilfully conceals the name of any creditor entitled to object to the reduction; or

   (b)   wilfully misrepresents the nature or amount of the debt or claim of any creditor; or

   (c)   aids, abets or is privy to any such concealment or misrepresentation as aforesaid,

he shall be punishable with imprisonment for a period not exceeding three years and shall also in lieu of or in addition thereto be liable to a fine not exceeding fifty thousand shillings.

Variation of Shareholders' Rights (s 62)

62.   Rights of holders of special classes of shares

   (1) If in the case of a company, the share capital of which is divided into different classes of shares, provision is made by the memorandum or articles for authorising the variation of the rights attached to any class of shares in the company, subject to the consent of any specified proportion of the holders of the issued shares of that class or the sanction of a resolution passed at a separate meeting of the holders of those shares, and in pursuance of the said provision the rights attached to any such class of shares are at any time varied, the holders of not less in the aggregate than fifteen percent of the issued shares of that class, being persons who did not consent to or vote in favour of the resolution for the variation, may apply to the court to have the variation cancelled, and, where any such application is made, the variation shall not have effect unless and until it is confirmed by the court.

   (2) An application under this section must be made within seven days after the date on which the consent was given or the resolution was passed, as the case may be, and may be made on behalf of the shareholders entitled to make the application by such one or more of their number as they may appoint in writing for the purpose.

   (3) On any such application the court, after hearing the applicant and any other persons who apply to the court to be heard and appear to the court to be interested in the application, may, if it is satisfied having regard to all the circumstances of the case, that the variation would unfairly prejudice the shareholders of the class represented by the applicant, disallow the variation and shall, if not so satisfied confirm the variation.

   (4) The decision of the court on any such application shall be final.

   (5) The company shall within fifteen days after the making of an order by the court on any such application forward a certified copy of the order to the Registrar, and, if default is made in complying with this provision the company and every officer of the company who is in default shall be liable to a default fine.

   (6) The expression "variation" in this section includes abrogation and the expression "varied" shall be construed accordingly.

Transfer of Shares and Debentures, Evidence of Title, etc. (ss 63-73)

63.   Nature of shares

   (1) The shares or other interest of any member in a company shall be movable property, transferable in manner provided by the articles of the company.

   (2) Each share in a company having a share capital shall be distinguished by its appropriate number.

63A.   Establishment by stock exchange of depository or issued securities

   (1) An approved stock exchange may establish a depository in which securities may be maintained provided that the Council or other ruling body of such exchange shall prescribe rules relating to safe custody all transfers and reports to be filed with the Registrar relating to transactions concerning the deposited securities.

   (2) The rules prescribed under paragraph (1) shall be satisfactory to the Registrar.

   (3) Transfer of securities deposited in a depository maintained by an approved stock exchange shall be effected in accordance with the transfer procedures prescribed under the rules of such exchange.

64.   Transfer not to be registered except on production of instrument of transfer

   Notwithstanding anything in the articles of a company, it shall not be lawful for the company to register a transfer of shares in or debentures of the company unless a proper instrument of transfer has been delivered to the company:

   Provided that nothing in this section shall prejudice any power of the company to register as shareholder or debenture holder any person to whom the right to any shares in or debentures of the company has been transmitted by operation of law.

65.   Transfer by personal representative

   A transfer of the share or other interest of a deceased member of a company made by his legal representative shall, although the legal representative is not himself a member of the company, be as valid as if he had been such a member at the time of the execution of the instrument of transfer.

66.   Registration of transfer at request of transferor

   On the application of the transferor of any share or interest in a company, the company shall enter in its register of members the name of the transferee in the same manner and subject to the same conditions as if the application for the entry were made by the transferee.

67.   Notice of refusal to register transfer Act No. 13 of 1991 Sch.">

   (1) If a company refuses to register a transfer of any shares or debentures, the company shall, within two months after the date on which the transfer was lodged with the company, send to the transferee notice of the refusal.

   (2) If default is made in complying with this section the company and every director, manager, secretary or other officer of the company who is knowingly a party to the default shall be liable to a fine not exceeding five hundred shillings for every day during which the default continues.

68.   Duties of company with respect to issue of certificate Act No. 13 of 1991 Sch.">

   (1) Every company shall, within three months after the allotment of any of its shares, debentures, or debenture stock, and within three months after the date on which a transfer of any such shares, debentures or debenture stock, is lodged with the company, complete and have ready for delivery the certificates of all shares, the debentures and the certificates of all debenture stock allotted or transferred, unless the conditions of issue of the shares, debentures or debenture stock otherwise provide.

   The expression "transfer" for the purpose of this subsection means a transfer duly stamped and otherwise valid, and does not include such a transfer as the company is for any reason entitled to refuse to register and does not register.

   (2) If default is made in complying with this section, the company and every director, manager, secretary or other officer of the company who is knowingly a party to the default shall be liable to a fine not exceeding five hundred shillings for every day during which the default continues.

   (3) If any company on which a notice has been served requiring the company to make good any default in complying with the provisions of subsection (1) of this section fails to make good the default within ten days after the service of the notice, the court may, on the application of the person entitled to have the certificates or the debentures delivered to him, make an order directing the company and any officer of the company to make good the default within such time as may be specified in the order, and any such order may provide that all costs of and incidental to the application shall be borne by the company or by any officer of the company responsible for the default.

69.   Certificate to be evidence of title

   A certificate under the common seal of the company, specifying any shares held by any member, shall be prima facie evidence of the title of the member to the shares.

70.   Evidence of grant of probate

   The production to a company of any document which is by law sufficient evidence of–

   (a)   probate of the will, or letters of administration of the estate, of a deceased person having been granted to some person; or

   (b)   the Administrator-General having undertaken administration of an estate under the Administrator-General (Powers and Functions) Act *,

shall be accepted by the company, notwithstanding anything in its articles, as sufficient evidence of such grant or undertaking.

71.   Issue and effect of share warrants to bearer

   (1) A company limited by shares, if so authorised by its articles, may, with respect to any fully paid-up shares, issue under its common seal a warrant stating that the bearer of the warrant is entitled to the shares therein specified, and may provide, by coupons or otherwise for the payment of the future dividends on the shares included in the warrant.

   (2) Such a warrant as aforesaid is in this Act termed as a "share warrant".

   (3) A share warrant shall entitle the bearer thereof to the shares therein specified, and the shares may be transferred by delivery of the warrant.

72.   Penalty for personation of shareholders Act No. 13 of 1991 Sch.">

   If any person falsely and deceitfully personates any owner of any share or interest in any company, or of any share warrant or coupon, issued in pursuance of this Act, and thereby obtains or endeavours to obtain any such share or interest or share warrant or coupon, or receives or endeavours to receive any money due to any such owner, as if the offender were the true and lawful owner, he shall be guilty of an offence and shall on conviction be liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding fourteen years.

73.   Offences in connection with share warrants Act No. 13 of 1991 Sch.">

   (1) If any person–

   (a)   with intent to defraud, forges or alters, or offers, utters, disposes of or puts off, knowing the same to be forged or altered, any share warrant or coupon, or any document purporting to be a share warrant or coupon, issued in pursuance of this Act; or

   (b)   by means of any such forged or altered share warrant, coupon or document, purporting as afore-said, demands or endeavours to obtain or receive any share or interest in any company under this Act, or to receive any dividend or money payable in respect thereof, knowing the warrant, coupon or document to be forged or altered,

he shall be guilty of an offence and shall on conviction be liable to imprisonment for life or for any term not less than five years.

   (2) If any person without lawful authority or excuse, proof whereof shall lie on him–

   (a)   engraves or makes on any plate, wood, stone or other material any share warrant or coupon purporting to be–

      (i)   a share warrant or coupon issued or made by any particular company in pursuance of this Act; or

      (ii)   a blank share warrant or coupon so issued or made; or

      (iii)   a part of such a share warrant or coupon; or

   (b)   uses any such plate, wood, stone or other material for the making, or printing of any such share warrant or coupon, or of any such blank share warrant or coupon, or any part thereof respectively; or

   (c)   knowingly has in his custody or possession any such plate, wood, stone or other material,

he shall be guilty of an offence, and shall on conviction thereof be liable to imprisonment for any term not exceeding fourteen years and not less than five years.

Special Provisions as to Debentures (ss 74-78)

74.   Right of debenture holders and share-holders to inspect register of debenture holders and to have copies of trust deed

   (1) Every register of holders of debentures of a company shall, except when duly closed, be open to the inspection of the registered holder of any such debentures, and of any holder of shares in the company, but subject to such reasonable restrictions as the company may in general meeting impose, so that no less than two hours in each day shall be allowed for inspection.

   For the purposes of this subsection a register shall be deemed to be duly closed if closed in accordance with provisions contained in the articles or in the debenture stock, in the stock certificates, or in the trust deed or other document securing the debentures or debenture stock, during such period or periods, not exceeding in the whole thirty days in any year, as may be therein specified.

   (2) Every registered holder of debentures and every holder of shares in a company may require a copy of the register of the holders of debentures of the company or any part thereof on payment of fifty cents for every hundred words required to be copied.

   (3) A copy of any trust deed for securing any issue of debentures shall be forwarded to every holder of any such debentures at his request on payment in the case of a printed trust deed of the sum of one shilling or such less sum as may be prescribed by the company, or where the trust deed has not been printed, on payment of fifty cents for every hundred words required to be copied.

   (4) If inspection is refused, or a copy is refused or not forwarded, the company and every officer of the company who is in default shall be liable to a fine not exceeding five thousand shillings, and further shall be liable to a default fine of forty shillings.

   (5) Where a company is in default as aforesaid, the court may by order compel an immediate inspection of the register or direct that the copies required shall be sent to the person requiring them.

75.   Perpetual debentures

   A condition contained in any debentures or in any deed for securing any debentures, whether issued or executed before or after the commencement of this Act, shall not be invalid by reason only that the debentures are thereby made irredeemable or redeemable only on the happening of a contingency however remote, or on the expiration of a period, however long, any rule of equity to the contrary notwithstanding.

76.   Power to re-issue redeemed debentures in certain cases

   (1) Where either before or after the commencement of this Act a company has redeemed any debentures previously issued, then–

   (a)   unless any provision to the contrary, whether express or implied, is contained in the articles or in any contract entered into by the company; or

   (b)   unless the company has, by passing a resolution to that effect or by some other act, manifested its intention that the debentures shall be cancelled,

the company shall have, and shall be deemed always to have had, power to re-issue the debentures, either by issuing the same debentures or by issuing other debentures in their place.

   (2) On a re-issue of redeemed debentures the person entitled to the debentures shall have, and shall be deemed always to have had, the same priorities as if the debentures had never been redeemed.

   (3) Where a company has power to re-issue debentures which have been redeemed, particulars with respect to the debentures which can so re-issued shall be included in every balance sheet of the company.

   (4) Where a company has either before or after the passing of this Act deposited any of its debentures to secure advances from time to time on current account or otherwise, the debentures shall not be deemed to have been redeemed by reason only of the account of the company having ceased to be in debit whilst the debentures remained so deposited.

   (5) The re-issue of a debenture or the issue of another debenture in its place under the power by this section given to, or deemed to have been possessed by, a company, whether the re-issue or issue was made before or after the passing of this Act, shall be treated as the issue of a new debenture for the purposes of stamp duty, but it shall not be so treated for the purposes of any provision limiting the amount or number of debentures to be issued:

   Provided that any person lending money on the security of a debenture re-issued under this section which appears to be duly stamped may give the debentures in evidence in any proceedings for enforcing his security without payment of the stamp duty or any penalty in respect thereof, unless he had notice or but for his negligence might have discovered that the debenture was not duly stamped, but in any such case the company shall be liable to pay the proper stamp duty and penalty.

   (6) Where any debentures which have been redeemed before the date of the commencement of this Act are re-issued subsequently to that date, the re-issue of the debentures shall not prejudice any right or priority which any person would have had under or by virtue of any mortgage or charge created before the date of the commencement of this Act, if section 127 of the Indian Companies Act, 1913, as formerly applied had been enacted in this Act instead of this section.

77.   Specific performance of contracts to subscribe for debentures

   A contract with a company to take up and pay for any debentures of the company may be enforced by a decree for specific performance.

78.   Payment of certain debts out of assets subject to floating charge in priority to claims under the charge

   (1) Where either a receiver is appointed on behalf of the holder of any debentures of the company secured by a floating charge, or possession is taken by or on behalf of those debenture holders of any property comprised in or subject to the charge, then, if the company is not at the time in course of being wound up, the debts which in every winding-up are under the provisions of Part VI of this Act relating to preferential payment to be paid in priority to all other debts, shall be paid out of any assets coming to the hands of the receiver or other person taking possession as aforesaid in priority to any claim for principal or interest in respect of the debentures.

   (2) The periods of time mentioned in the said provisions of Part VI of this Act shall be reckoned from the date of the appointment of the receiver or of possession being taken as aforesaid, as the case may be.

   (3) Any payments made under this section shall be recouped as far as may be out of the assets of the company available for payment of general creditors.

PART IV
REGISTRATION OF CHARGES (ss 79-91)

Registration of Charges with Registrar (ss 79-86)

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